The role of goats in the economy of the organized farms in India and economic losses due to mortality and morbidity at small and larger level is important. Goats contribute more than 52% of households’ total income towards nutrition and food security of the family of goat keepers, nearly 5-8% goats are housed in organized farms. The mortality and morbidity losses due to diseases in goats were estimated at field level in Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh State, India. The mortality rates for small, medium and large categories of goat keeping were 32.8, 32.1 and 15.8% in kids and 31.2, 19.9 and 14.9% in adult goats, respectively. It shows that larger flocks have developed immunity and suffer less with epidemics. The losses due to diseases in goats scaled at national level were estimated at Rs. 11,720 million per annum. The adoption of prophylactic and preventive measures in goats could result in a net savings of Rs. 5144 million per annum to the economy of the country.
The incidence of diseases and parasitic infestations is one of the major constraints in the development of goat enterprise, contributing towards substantial losses to the goat keepers. Diseases in goats result in mortality which ranges from 5 to 25% in adults and 10 to 40% in kids (Rekib and Vihan, 1997). In addition, morbidity (diseased condition) losses result in low productivity of the animals. Morbid goats remains under continues stress which further push them to suffer more with low incidence diseases. Existing veterinary services for prevention and control of diseases in goats in the rural areas are not sufficient and very less number of goat specific health products are available in the market. Livestock services available to small holder goat keepers are biased towards delivering curative veterinary services. Preventive veterinary care receives less attention, and vaccination coverage of goats is below the level of effective protection (Ahuja et al., 2000). Because of the increased vulnerability of diseased animals, preventive care becomes more important, particularly in small ruminants. Certain diseases are creating havoc in Indian goat flocks like clinical and sub clinical Mycoplasmosis (Pneumonia) and PPR.
Goat Health Calendar
The prevention of common goat diseases has been standardized in the form of an annual goat health calendar by CIRG, and the planned implementation of this schedule will help in the prevention of goat diseases under different agro-climatic zones throughout the country. A field study was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of this technology on the economy of goat keepers through prevention of economic losses due to diseases in goats. Such studies are necessary to develop organized goat farms on scientific lines. New research and development is the need of time and providing proper direction for research through PPP model will definitively assure positive boost to this sector.
To estimate economic losses due to diseases and parasitic infestations in goats, the incidence of various diseases was observed in the farmer’s flock throughout the year. About 85% of the goats in the study were non-descript while the remaining 15% were of the Barberi breed. The age of adults ranged from one year to seven years and the average adult male : female ratio was 1:22. The losses due to diseases were considered under three heads—first, the estimated losses due to mortality based on the market price of the animals that died; second, production losses, estimated in terms of milk production loss during the period of disease and unrecovered weight loss of affected kids; and third, expenditure on medicines and additional labour and feed for the diseased animals.
As the systematic information on losses due to diseases in goats at macro-level is not available, the average mortality rate due to diseases estimated based on several previous studies was utilised for calculating losses at larger level.
For the purpose of reference we are giving standard health chart for goat’s health at organized farms.
Prevention of goats against infectious diseases – Vaccination Schedule of goats
|S.no||Disease||Vaccine available at||Dose and time of vaccination||Booster||Repetition|
|1||PPR||PPR vaccine IVRI, Raksha PPR by Indian immunologicals||100 dose/Rs 100/- 2month of age, if u purchase new animal then vaccinate it even in pregnancy than introduce into farm.||No need of booster||It gives protection up to 4 years|
|2||ET||ET vaccine IVRI,
Bovilis® ETV made by intervet (Storage
Between 2 - 8°C. Shake well before use.
Do not freeze.
|50 Doses/Rs 100/- vaccinate at 1 week of age if mother is not vaccinated otherwise vaccinate at 4 wk of age.||If vaccinate at 1st wk than give booster at 4th wk||Every 6th month|
|3||HS + FMD||HS vaccine is a available in combination of FMD made by Indian immunologicals marketed as RAKSHA BIOVAC
1ST vaccination done at 4 month of age
|1ml/animal; available in 30ml vial costs around Rs 125/-||9 month after 1st vaccination||Annually|
|4||BQ||RAKSHA-BQ by Indian immunologicals||1st vaccination at 6month of age, 1ml is dose and available in 100ml vial||------|
|5||Brucellosis (this disease has zoonotic potential so take due care of it)||BRUREX REV 1 by Indian immunologicals||1st vaccination at 5 month of age with dose 1ml subcut in mid neck region, it is available in 5, 10,20 and 100 doses vial. Do not vaccinate the pregnant animals.||No need|
Goats are highly susceptible to intestinal parasites.
Round & flat worms are main cause of undergrowth & weight loss. Many parasites are found in digestive system of goats. These are found at every location in the intestine from food pipe to large intestine.
Most seriously pathogenic worm is Haemonchus contortus. It is voracious blood sucker & cause severe deficiency of blood. Apparently healthy animals may contain 100s of worms inside true stomach. Each worm suck about 0.05ml of blood daily and thus with 2500 worms may lose about 125ml blood daily.
Dewormers for goats available in the market
|FASINEX (Triclabendazole)||250mg bolus per 25kg body weight||For flukes|
|ZANIL (Triclabendazole)||3ml per 10kg body weight||For flukes|
|PRAZI plus or DRONCIT (Praziquantal)||50mg tab per 10kg body weight||Flat worms|
|PIPERAZINE liquid||4ml/kg body weight||Round worms (give at the age of 7 days to kids)|
|FENCURE (fenbendazole)||7.5mg/kg body weight||Round worms and lung worms|
|XYCLOZ, ZENVET(closantal)||7.5mg/kg body weight||For all types of parasites|
Ectoparasite control in goats (Lice, Ticks, Keds etc) -
Dipping in ectoparasiticide drug is regular activity in goat farms. This is particularly important in breeding farms in which elite animals are kept for years together. It is carry out 2 times in a year; before the start of summer and winter i.e. in March & October.
Spray of recommended drug can also be used if dipping is not possible.
Oral drugs like Closantal or Ivermectin can take care of both intestinal worms as well ectoparasites.
|Concentration and form|
|Amitraz||0.025% - 0.05% spray|
|Coumaphos||0.25% spray, 0.5% dust|
|Dichlorvos||0.5% - 1% spray|
|Deltamethrin (butox)||0.0125% dip|
|Fipronil (not labeled for food animals)||0.29% spray|
|Malathion||0.5% spray, 5% dust|
|Lime sulfer||2-5% dip|
Control of Diarrhea in goat kids -
In first few days of birth kids are very much susceptible for Diarrhea due to Coccidiosis and other protozoal pathogens. Following drugs should be given from 2 weeks of age in feed/water to prevent this infection
|Amprolium||25-50mg/kg body weight orally in feed or water. For 1-2 months|
|Sulfadimidine||55g/ton of feed for at least 15 days|
|Diclazuril||1mg/kg body weight orally once every 2-4 weeks|