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Contagious Caprine pleura pneumonia in Goats

It is commonly known as CCPP. Deadly disease which results in shut down of farms because it remains undiagnosed in the farms. This disease is difficult to control if once occur. So, preventive measures for this disease are needed to be taken.

Primary characters of the CCPP –

  • Contagious (Chune se failne wala),
  • Severe Infectious Pneumonia
  • High mortality rate


 Watery Discharge from nose in initial infection Reason is Mycoplasma mycoides var. capri

Important Point: Mycoplasma is microscopic organism related to bacteria but smaller and simpler than bacteria. They lack cell wall and remain unaffected by common antibiotics. They are difficult to cultivate and hence lab diagnosis is also not easy.

This is very common disease in goats and found in Asia, Africa and some parts of Europe.

Now it is worthy to note that this disease is transmitted by aerosol route (inhalation) because its infection causes cough and sneezing by which these microbes comes in the environment and they do not settle down but remain suspended in the air.

Also when infected animals share the same trough of feed and water it will become another route of infection.

Surrounding animals gets infection easily and disease spread rapidly in the flock. However, Mycoplasma does not able to survive in the air for long period so if infected animals remove from the herd in initial days than its spread can be restricted.

Most of the time newly introduced animals into the healthy flock brings disease; its reason might be shown in the following smart art.

This is very serious problem I tell you. You should take care of introduction of new animals in healthy flocks. When you bring new animals keep them on isolated place, give them stress releaser like vitamin B- complex and vitamin C and observe them for few days.

In susceptible goats mortality is very high. Infection start shows its symptom after 6 – 10 days.

Infection causes 100% morbidity (each and every animal is affected) while CFR (death due to infection) ranges between 60 to 100%.

Affected goats shows –
Anorexia (bhook na lagna);
Nasal discharge (naak behna);
Abdominal respiration and dyspnoea (sans lene main takleef);
Fever;
Dry painful cough (sukhi khansi);
Frequent lying down;
Open mouth breathing;
Protrusion of tongue (jeebh bahar ana);
Excessive frothy salivation;
Nasal discharge watery initially than become thick (mucopurulent)

 Watery Discharge from nose in initial infection Thick Mucopurulent discharge during later stages
Figure 1 Watery Discharge from nose in initial infection Figure 2 Thick Mucopurulent discharge during later stages

 

In field conditions these clinical findings are enough to rule out CCPP infections in the flock, but in elite breeding herds and carry out specific health program for its cure confirmed diagnosis is essential.

Diagnosis includes clinical findings (above given points) + post mortem findings + isolation and identification of causal agent.

Post-mortem examination will reveal fibrinous pleuropneumonia accompanied with increased pleural fluid (straw colored), and enlarged and oedematous mediastinal lymph nodes. Lungs become (red to grey in color).

 Deep red to grayish lung (OIE Courtesy) Deposits of fibrin in the visceral pleura and excessive straw
Figure 3 Deep red to grayish lung (OIE Courtesy) Figure 4 Deposits of fibrin in the visceral pleura and excessive straw

 

Cultural diagnosis is not easy as Mycoplasma is difficult to grow on artificial media. However, one special medium called as Bennett’s Broth can be used for its cultivation. In this heart blood can be inoculated for 24hrs and than observe dew drop colonies (0.5 to 1.0 mm in diameter)

Compliment fixation test – It is the most useful and reliable method for detecting infection, particularly in carrier animals (means in those animals which are having disease but do not show signs).

Tube precipitation test can be used for confirmatory diagnosis. These tests cannot be performed at farm and the samples must be sent to Animal Disease Diagnostic Labs. One such lab in the country is CADRAD IVRI, Izatnagar. You can ask your veterinary doctor to send the samples for confirmatory diagnosis to CADRAD.

Line of treatment

CCPP is more a managemental problem rather prospective infectious disease. Its treatment is very successful if follow properly.

The technical bulletin published by OIE on Contagious Caprine Pleuro Pneumonia (CCPP) says that the primary method of controling the outbreak was the mass treatment of infected flocks using antimicrobials (oxytetracycline), which helped to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  • Oxytetracycline should be given @ 15mg/kg body weight i/m daily for 6-8 days.
  • Tylosin tartrate @ 10mg/kg body weight i/m for 3 days.

Prevention and control

As per OIE norms 3 main criteria of control should be followed at large level.

  • Restriction on movement of animals
  • Modified stamping out
  • Screening

In farm following points should be strictly followed (otherwise you must know that CCPP can wipe whole flocks without any difficulty)

  • Keep disease animals isolated
  • Maintain proper ventilation in the farms
  • Use disinfectant regularly for cleaning equipments
  • Use attenuated live culture vaccine @ 0.2 ml intradermally at ear tip which provides immunity for 15 months.

Vaccine can also be prepared at farm as Longley’s formalized vaccine

1g tissue (preferably infected lung) + 25ml Normal Saline = make an emulsion by properly triturating it.

Filter it and filtrate is formalized to a concentration of 0.5%. (Add 175ml formalin) give 3ml of this vaccine by subcut route. It provides immunity for 5 months

However lab manufactured vaccines are more reliable and effective than this method. Used this only when other substitute are not available