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Nutrient Requirement for Goats

Nurient requirements and feeding of goats for meat and milk production

Goats are valued for economic milk production and as the main source for meet for a large section of populace. Some of the important dua1 purpose breeds (Meat and milk) are Jamunapari, Barbari, Beetal. Black Bengal is a meat purpose breed. Angora, Chegu (Pasmina) are of hair type breeds. Black Bengal, Barbari are examples of small breeds. Alpine and Saanen are examples of exotic dairy goats. A good, well-managed goat may produce as much milk at less cost as the ordinary cow. The average milk yield of a non-descript doe is 60 1itrss, while it is 100 and 250 litres for Barbari and Jamunapari breeds, respectively, per lactation of 120 days.

Nutrient Requirements of Goats

National Research council of National Academy of sciences, USA published nutrient requirements of goats in 1981. ICAR published the nutrient requirements of goats in 1985 in its Nutrient Requirements of Livestock and Poultry which was revised in 1998. Research on nutrition of goats in India has been conducted only at a few centres. ICAR established a National Institute for Research on Goats at Makhdhum in U.P. The energy and protein requirements have been worked out on the basis of information availab1 (Senger, 1992). The European association for animal production (EAPP) published a review of research work done I between 1982 and 1990 summarised by group of experts under the programme of the FAQ cooperative research Sub-network on goat production (EAAP Publication No. 46, 1991).

Dry Matter Intake

Dry matter intake vary from 35 to 80 g per kg metabolic body size for different Indian breeds of goats with a 70 g as average (3.2% of BW). The DMI for the smaller breeds (Barbari and Black Bengal) is higher than the larger breeds (Jamunapari, beetal). DMI varies according to the energy density of the diet and the physical character of the roughage. DM1 in the growing kids (pre-ruminant and early growth) ranges between 35-50 g per kg metabolic body size whereas in lactating jamunapari goats ranges from 120 to 140 g. DMI of goats is higher in comparison to large farm animals. Meat goats : 3% of Bw Dairy goats : 4-6% of Bw

The DMI in case of Alpine breed during lactation in temperate conditions is 3.6 kg/day or 6.8% of BW or l81 g per kg metabolic body size. The voluntary DMI rises just afer parturition and reaches a maximum between 6 and 10 weeks of lactation and thereafter decreased. Decreased dry matter intake has been reported with the advancement of pregnancy due to the reduction in the volume of abdominal cavity, Iimiting the distension of digestive tract and ultimately the food intake.

Maintenance ICAR (1985) has taken 76 g per kg metabolic body size, as dry matter requirement. The nutrient requirements per kg metabolic body size are DCP 3.0 g and TDN 30 g for maintenance as per the second revised edition (Ranjhan 1998).

Pregnancy and lactation: The recommended requirements include the maintenance requirement at different body weights. On an average the lactation requirement is 345 g TDN and 45 g DCP per kg of 4% FCM over and above the maintenance requirement.